Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Executive Summary A leader can create milestones, transforms people, or change history. What motivates a leader to do one of these, or all of them, can be examined in the internal and external environment of the leader, the characteristics of the people, events that are happening, and the characteristic traits of the leader. The leader capable of doing these has also the characteristics distinct from others. A leader should have the cognitive and emotional intelligence to achieve what Gandhi has achieved as an effective leader who led the independence of India.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Critical Analysis of the Movie Gandhi specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The story of Mahatma Gandhi is one of the most fascinating stories in the history of colonizing countries and human rights. Gandhi wanted independence and to free India from the clutches of the British Empire without resorting to violence. He used humili ty and fasting instead of force. Fasting was his most effective weapon against the British rulers. He was, in the words of Howard Gardner (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"a creator with superlative interpersonal intelligenceÃ¢â¬ . Gandhi popularized the idea of peaceful resistance. He fasted for days until he gained sympathy from a great number of people, forcing the government to give in to some of his demands. He was an effective leader because he had the characteristic traits of a leader such as self-confidence, humility, trustworthiness, extraversion, enthusiasm and sense of humor. Moreover, his leadership was effective because of several factors. The internal and external environment chose his leadership; he did not only volunteer for his leadership, but the people chose him to be their leader. India waited for his homecoming so he could lead the people to fight for their independence, without violence. The Film Gandhi Scene 1 Ã¢â¬â The assassination (2:39 Ã¢â¬â 4:27) The opening scene c an tell us how an effective leader can be cut off from continuing his leadership. Assassination is cutting off someone who is effective. The assassination of Gandhi cuts him off from his people. The reason of course is obvious Ã¢â¬â he is an effective leader, the people follow him, whatever he says has an effect and an outcome, or perhaps, we can say that his leadership cannot be stopped except through the bullet of a gun. The assassin is one of those opposed to his ways. But there is another leadership here Ã¢â¬â the assassin is being coached by another leader, someone who is against GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching. Scene 2 Ã¢â¬â GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s burial parade (4:36 Ã¢â¬â 6:16) The burial parade is attended by hundreds of thousands, people of all walks of life, and dignitaries and representatives from the different countries of the world.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gandhi was a Hindu who practiced the teachings of Christianity, sympathized with Muslims and other religions, but was revered by millions throughout India and the world. His leadership was leadership by example. He made humility not only a tool but a weapon mightier than an empire. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s burial showed that Gandhi was not just an ordinary leader. He was a leader of no army, but his enemies feared his weapon. Scene 3 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi, a young lawyer, consulting and discussing with the Indian immigrants of South Africa, telling them his train experience wherein he was thrown out because he was colored Ã¢â¬â 9:21-11:18 Gandhi was surprised that the Indians had accepted their fate, subject to white supremacy. This was the beginning of his desire to change his oppressed countrymen. He wanted to lead and the people had to be awakened. Gandhi knew India needed change, but it had to start from the ordinary folks in the countryside. Indians under the British Empire had to know w hat was going on. The people were living in extreme poverty under a foreign government. Somebody had to begin the campaign for freedom, and he started his campaign in South Africa. This is one of the first scenes that showed his interpersonal skill of communicating with a small group of Indians in South Africa. He communicated clearly with them and established a strong personal bond. He convinced them to help him organize the Indians of South Africa. This small group of Indians who became a core group in GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s small community was a motivational factor in GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s initial outburst of leadership and Ã¢â¬ËcryÃ¢â¬â¢ for justice for the oppressed Indian immigrants of South Africa. They were motivating each other. They had a mutual relationship although at first they were pessimistic because they knew they were going to fight a formidable force Ã¢â¬â the British Empire. They first warned Gandhi, but later they were all awakened by the fact that they had to be unite d to fight for justice. They saw in Gandhi the traits of a good leader. Scene 4 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi organizes the Indian Congress of South Africa Ã¢â¬â 11:18-16:03 Gandhi organized his young countrymen, including the rich Indians and ordinary people who had migrated to that country for jobs or to find their place under the sun. His leadership skill displayed in the initial stages of the Ã¢â¬ËrevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ to free India. He even asked his wife to bring along with them the wives of the other Indians. Organizing the small groups of Indians to stand for a cause was a beginning feat for Gandhi. He sought the help of the press, as he was himself a writer, and from the Indian population of South Africa.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Critical Analysis of the Movie Gandhi specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gandhi and the businessman who was motivated to follow him asked the Indians to burn their passes. The Ã¢â¬Ë passÃ¢â¬â¢ was a piece of government document which was required of all colored people in South Africa to distinguish them from the Europeans. Only the whites did not have passes. By burning the passes, Gandhi and the people protested the injustice of the white government. Gandhi was beaten but he showed no fear. This is the kind of leadership that the people wanted. The wake-up call started by Gandhi presented him as a charismatic leader. Charismatic leaders have Ã¢â¬Å"strong convictions, high self-confidence, a tendency to dominate, and a desire to influence those around themÃ¢â¬ (Mannarelli, 2006, p. 46). The first to burn his pass was the rich Indian who was immediately apprehended by the police. But Gandhi did not show fear. He wanted the people to follow him even in the face of danger. In his confrontations with the British authorities, he was confident of himself. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s speech angered the police and the British authorities. No one had ever made such a remark or goaded the Indians to rise to action. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s statement was a cry for a revolution. To ask to be treated as equal with the white people meant Ã¢â¬ËsacrilegeÃ¢â¬â¢ for the white people at that time. The police were alarmed; this was like calling to arms. But Gandhi said that they were not seeking a rise to arms but their protest was for peaceful means, and all they wanted was justice. The environment was ripe for a change. The Indians were beginning to feel the pressure from the government. They needed a leader; they needed someone who had the characteristic traits of a leader, someone they could follow, and someone who could be trusted. When they saw and felt that Gandhi was that someone that had been waiting for, they cooperated with him. They were awakened and they wanted to fight. Scene 5 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi and a Christian preacher meet a group of young white people who were ready to harass them Ã¢â¬â 18:42 Ã¢â¬â 19:49 Gandhi knew how to understand his emotions and others; he also knew his opponents. While walking with the pastor who came to visit him, they met a group of young men who were ready to harass, or make a fool of them. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s self confidence and humility are remarkable in this scene. He said to the pastor that he had heard of the teachings of Jesus Christ and followed some of his examples. Gandhi told his pastor friend the example of Jesus Christ that when your enemy strikes you in one cheek, offer the other. The young men did not push through with their evil intent. The whites were beginning to feel the pressure too. So they were starting to harass and add more pressure to the Indians.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scene 6 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi asks his wife to clean the latrine of the room for the journalistÃ¢â¬â¢s driver Ã¢â¬â 22:28 Ã¢â¬â 25:07 Gandhi leads a Christian community known as Ã¢â¬ËashramÃ¢â¬â¢. He was addressed as Ã¢â¬Å"BapujiÃ¢â¬ , which meant father. India was in a deadlock; the country was under the heels of change. This change was about to burst in the midst of mounting protests by nationalists and JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s imperial ambitions. (Fisher, 1942, p. 32) His leadership was like leading a family; he was a father to the members of the community. He experienced the poverty of his people by organizing the community known as Ã¢â¬ËashramÃ¢â¬â¢. Gandhi emphasized the importance of understanding people (Gardner, 1999, p. 46). He displayed a precocious concern with the treatment of others and with consequences of violating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s moral codes. Gandhi had the quality of inter-personal intelligence. In their community, they offer hospitality to their visitors. One time when a journalist visited them, Gandhi asked his wife to clean the latrine, one for the journalist, and another for the driver. The wife refused, arguing that she was a member of a class in India known as Ã¢â¬Å"untouchableÃ¢â¬ . Gandhi had wanted to modify this caste system. His leadership was to lead by example; no one should be above the other even if he is a leader. He had taught humility to his people, and this should be practiced by everyone including the members of his family. He used his interpersonal skills in persuading his wife that it was for principle that he wanted to modify some of the Indian beliefs. The caste system was discriminatory. His family should be the first to show to the people that they practiced what they preached. Gandhi was a trustworthy leader, and to be trustworthy, he was being genuine and honest in his values and beliefs (Dubrin, 2009, p. 38). He practiced this at the risk of sending his wife out of his own home when the latter insisted that she was a member of Ã¢â¬Å"untouchablesÃ¢â¬ . Gandhi did not like this thought and the Indian custom. It had to be blotted out from the minds of ordinary Indian families. Gardner (1999, p. 128) said that leaders have a good intrapersonal sense Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"a keen awareness of their own strengths, weaknesses, and goals Ã¢â¬â and they are prepared to reflect regularly on their personal course.Ã¢â¬ Another trait of a leader is self-awareness. In his confrontation with his wife about the latrine issue, Gandhi was examining his conscience. He had some weaknesses and strength. But he knew he could draw some strength from his wife who had always been there. From this time on, he learned to understand himself, his mood and behavior and how he could affect others. Scene 7 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi speaks in front of Muslims and Hindus Ã¢â¬â 25:08 Ã¢â¬â 30:25 There is tension because the British general had imposed new stricter laws against the Indians. All Indians were to be fingerprinte d; marriages had to be Christian marriage, and other than this act, their wives were considered whores. A policeman, entering an Indian dwelling, may enter that dwelling and could do anything to their wives, legally. There is an uproar coming from the audience as Gandhi explains the new law. But Gandhi persuades them not to attack anyone; to resist by not giving their fingerprints. Through their pain, the British would see their injustice. Ã¢â¬Å"We will not strike a blow. We cannot lose. They may torture my body, break my bones, they can have my body, but not my obedience.Ã¢â¬ Gandhi spoke to the crowd in the presence of government people. In this scene, Gandhi showed the many qualities of a real leader. He had self-confidence. Humility is one of those traits needed of an effective leader. Gandhi also showed extraversion. He was outgoing and gregarious, convincing the people not to obey the laws of the British, but not to fight violence with violence. He was an effective leader in the truest sense of the word. Scene 8 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi leading the minersÃ¢â¬â¢ strike Ã¢â¬â 30:26 Ã¢â¬â 34:53 Another scene of the film portrayed Gandhi leading the minersÃ¢â¬â¢ strike. Horse-driven constables came to disperse Gandhi and the crowd, but the group resisted by lying on the road. The troops retreated. Gandhi showed leadership by example. He was ready to die with the miners. He taught them courage and humility in the face of danger. The owner of the mine could do nothing but leave along with the police. Scene 9 Ã¢â¬â The effectiveness of GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s example Ã¢â¬â 34:54 Ã¢â¬â 36:00 The preacher in one of his sermons was reiterating the principles being taught by Gandhi. Ã¢â¬Å"We will not fight but weÃ¢â¬â¢ll not comply.Ã¢â¬ The preacher learned much from Gandhi. The leadership qualities were now implanted in the heart of the preacher, despite his being a Christian. Scene 10 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi and his countrymen are freed Ã¢â¬â 36:00 Ã¢â¬â 39:38 Gandhi is called to the office of the general informing him that he and the rest of the Indian prisoners would be released. But in exchange for the generalÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËgoodnessÃ¢â¬â¢, Gandhi asked for money, saying that he was going home to India. This is one of those GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s wise moves. A leader should be wise. Gardner (1999) said that Ã¢â¬Å"a person who can use several intelligences together appropriately is more likely to be wise, because a greater number of faculties and factors will have entered into the equation.Ã¢â¬ An example is a military manÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership: a military man can be schooled in the art of diplomacy and fighting. The military leader uses his intelligences in persuasion or diplomacy and the art of fighting with arms and bullets. In the scene in which Gandhi was released from person, he used wisdom. Gandhi asked money from the general who said he neither had money, but pointed to Mr. Daniel to give Gandhi the needed money. How far w as Gandhi going? He was going home to India. Gandhi was going away from the prisons of South Africa, to return home to India who needed him most. In India, he was joyfully received by the people, and gave him a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s welcome. There was much work to do for Gandhi in the land he did not know much. But he was determined to free India from the British possession. Gardner and Laskin (1995) said that Gandhi saw himself as the only one who could help India; there was no other one. Scene 11 Ã¢â¬â A heroÃ¢â¬â¢s welcome (daytime) 40:00 Ã¢â¬â 43:49 In India, Gandhi was greeted by thousands of people, including the political leaders of India, members of congress, and other influential people. Many had heard of his exploits in South Africa, and had read his articles. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership skills were like a magnet to the people. Bruce J. Avolio (cited in Dubrin, 2010, p. 20) states that Ã¢â¬Å"leadership is a function of both the leader and the led and the complexity of the contest.Ã¢â¬ Leadership is not imagined, nor is it abstract. It involves the person and the persons led and a variety of forces in the environment. Gandhi knew he could lead them but he had to motivate his countrymen. He saw the beginning of a new relationship. His leadership would soon be tested. Nevertheless, his leadership now involved the greater population of India, a people living in terrible poverty. Gandhi started this by living what he had preached. Leadership is building up a character, a personality, and changing it to something to mould an organization or a group of people. Leadership leads to change, but leadership succumbs to change. And change affects all of us Ã¢â¬â our thoughts, feelings, activities, and experience. Leadership and change go together because a leader has to change all the time. Change is an internal dynamic in a person; meaning the attitude Ã¢â¬â our attitudes, our outlook in life, our motivations and objectives for the organization Ã¢â¬â should change, and we become good leaders. But first we have to be transformed into good followers who want change. The Ã¢â¬ËwantÃ¢â¬â¢ is emphasized here because if we do not have the longing for change, it will not be effective. It has to be a desire and a goal. When Gandhi was consulted by a group of young leaders most of all were lawyers, he asked them the question: Do we want change? Gandhi asked this because the young did not know what they wanted of Gandhi as a leader and where they were going. Scene 12 Ã¢â¬â Gandhi and the political leaders of India address the African National Congress Ã¢â¬â 52:00 Ã¢â¬â 57:21 Gandhi had come home from South Africa. The political climate, the sentiment of the people, and the overall prevailing situation provided for an environment where a leader and followers could understand each other and fight for a common cause. The political leaders spoke, and they received a resounding applause. But when Gandhi started to speak, they knew he was talking sense. The environment was now ripe for all to collaborate and speak their minds against the injustice and oppressive government of the British Empire. Anyone could lead. There were the political leaders who wanted to fight, the different sectors who were looking for a trusted and courageous leader. Some thought they needed some who could fight with arms. When Gandhi talked about fighting the British with the use of non-violence and humility, they were pessimistic. But GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness of a leader proved them that humility was effective in fighting a formidable force. Scene 13 Ã¢â¬â GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s weapon Ã¢â¬â humility and fasting (daytime) 1:44:30 Ã¢â¬â 1:50 When the British finally gave India the much-awaited independence, the Muslim and Hindu factions could not be stopped from fighting each other. This led to the separation of the Muslim-dominated Pakistan and India. Gandhi fasted again for days that nearly took his life. His followers and t hose who cared for him did everything to convince him that the fighting had stopped. Leaders of the different fighting groups went to him to convince him that they would not fight anymore. Gandhi and the new leaders of India were about to begin a free India when the bulletÃ¢â¬â¢s assassin ended all that he had started. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s style of leadership is remarkable Ã¢â¬â peaceful, non-violent, non-cooperation. His defiance to the British authorities was to respond to violence with simple disobedience. No matter how many times he was beaten, stricken by wooden stick, humiliated, and imprisoned, his reaction was not to fight violence with violence. GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s example Ã¢â¬â his life, his belief, including his ways and practices Ã¢â¬â allowed him to have moral authority over his countrymen. It was unique and immeasurable, like that of Jesus and other great men of the past who have led their people to freedom. It may not be original nor is it difficult to practice. Gan dhi was charismatic; he had the charisma to lead people. He knew the way, and he knew how to lead them to that way. He told a gathering of Asian workers not to violently resist discriminating laws, but not to obey them as well. Holman quotes Philip Yancey who says, Ã¢â¬Å"Today, Gandhi sits like a superego on the shoulder of the Western church asking all of us Ã¢â¬ ¦ why we donÃ¢â¬â¢t practise what we preach.Ã¢â¬ (Holman, 2003, p. 21) Scene 14 Ã¢â¬â Protest walk to the sea Ã¢â¬â 2:00:30 Ã¢â¬â 2:05:20 Gandhi leads the protest walk up to the sea where he would make his salt. The protest march arrived at the sea at the anniversary of the massacre of Indian civilians. On this walk, the people were waving and cooperating at the side of the road, women were weaving the traditional Indian cloth as a symbol of their support to the cause of Gandhi. Majority of the people, Muslims and Hindus, including the different sectors of society, politicians, businessmen, and ordinary fol ks were supporting and collaborating to the cause that Gandhi was fighting for Ã¢â¬â independence of India. This made the leadership of Gandhi very effective. Discussion Gandhi had a high degree of emotional intelligence. Daniel GolemanÃ¢â¬â¢s (Dubrin, 2009, p. 44) analysis suggests that emotional intelligence played greater role than cognitive intelligence in creating an effective leader. One of the important components of emotional intelligence is social awareness. Gandhi realized the plight of his millions of countrymen who were in dire poverty and had succumbed to injustice and oppression. Gardner (1999) said that leaders and creators seek to influence the thoughts of others; Gandhi had the power of persuasion. A leader or a creator has a story to tell; he creates his own story. A leader speaks directly to the people, and his speech has to be as simple or simplistic as possible. (Gardner, 1999, p. 131) Gardner (1999, p. 126) says that traditionally, leaders are those who in fluence people to change their thoughts, feelings and/or behaviors. Many of those leaders could bring about changes coercively, as in the case of a despot in a dictatorial regime. But in this situation, the effectiveness of the leadership is there when the intimidating force is still present, but when the coercion has been removed, the leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness wanes. Leadership is at the forefront of all human activities, and it is a role that should not just be taken lightly (Thompson and Martinuzzi, 2008, p. 6). Gandhi is one of those who succeeded in making changes without coercion. He introduced humility and submitted to the cruelties of the British by disobeying their laws. In the first scenes of the film, the leadership of Gandhi was portrayed as one with persuasion. Gandhi also had the gift of language; he wrote skillfully and told effective stories. He awakened the people through his writings. According to Gardner (1999, p. 128), these are some of the first Ã¢â¬Å"i ntelligencesÃ¢â¬ of a leader. Self-confidence is a trait that Gandhi showed, making him to qualify for a good leader. He not only showed this to the authorities, he convinced his countrymen that he could be their leader. Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership is a responsibility that must be practiced fulltimeÃ¢â¬ (Weiss, 2000, p. 17). While it is true that it must be practiced full time, it has to be practiced with humility. Gandhi knew his responsibility as a leader and as a father to a small village. This small village would grow into the bigger India which was in the verge of a revolution. People always look at the kind of leader they want to emulate or take as a role model. Others follow leaders whom they idolize. (Willis, 1996, p. 6) Characteristic traits of Gandhi were also charismatic and transformational. Charismatic leaders have Ã¢â¬Å"strong belief in their ideas and a high level of self-confidenceÃ¢â¬ ((Black and Porter, 2000). Transformational leadership can transform people into t he kind of followers an organization must have (Bass and Rigio, 2006, p. 16). Transformational leadership motivates members to make large changes. Bass (1990) defines transformation leadership to include Ã¢â¬Å"charisma, inspiration, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Friedman, p. 9). But Sashkin (1988) also includes vision in this kind of leadership. Trice and Beyer (1991) argue that charismatic leaders are founders of an organization while transformational are members who want to effect change. Burns (2003, p. 24) attributes change to transactional leadership, but transformational is a different concept at all. Conclusion The political climate, the tense atmosphere, and the people in need of a leader made Gandhi effective. Additionally, the external and internal environment coupled with the characteristic traits of Gandhi made his leadership very effective. Gandhi was emphatic and stressful in his words. He was a gifted writer. He was a lawyer; he k new what he was talking about. His style and behavior motivated the people to follow him; the British too felt the Indians were becoming stronger. The British rulers respected Gandhi and looked up to his ways. They knew he was not an ordinary leader. And they were beginning to feel Gandhi and the people of India were united for one cause. This made the leadership effective. India gained British independence because of that leadership. References Bass, B. and Riggio, R., 2006. Transformational leadership (second edition). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Black, J. S. and Porter, L., 2000. Management: meeting new challenges. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Burns, J., 2003. Transforming leadership: a new pursuit of happiness. New York: Grove Press. Dubrin, A., 2009. Leadership. United States of America: Cengage Learning. Fisher, W., 1942. Gandhi at home. In: Life, Aug 17, 1942. Vol. 13, No. 7 ISSN 00-24-3019. Published by Time Inc. Friedman, H., Langbert, M. , and Giladi, K., 2000. Transformational leadership. National Public Accountant [e-journal]. Available through: City University London . Gardner, H. and Laskin, E., 1995. Leading minds: an anatomy of leadership. New York: Perseus Books. Group. Holman, B., 2003. Icon of the month. In: Third Way, Summer 2003, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 21. UK: Third Way Trust Ltd. Thompson, G. and Martinuzzi, B., 2008. The power to lead. Supervision [e-journal], Available through: City University London . Mannarelli, T., 2006. Accounting for leadership: charismatic, transformational leadership through reflection and self-awareness. Accountancy Ireland, December 2006 Vol. 38 No. 6, [e-journal], Available through: City University London . Sashkin, M., 1988. The visionary leader. In J.A. Conger and R.N. Canungo, Charismatic leadership: the elusive factor in organizational effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Trice, H. and Beyer, J., 1991. Cultural leadership in organizations. Organization Science, 1 (May), 149-169. Available through: City University London . Weiss, W., 2000. Leadership. [e-journal], Available through: City University London Willis, E., 1996. The Sociological Quest: An Introduction to the Study of Social Life. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. This report on Critical Analysis of the Movie Gandhi was written and submitted by user Brayden Madden to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Elizabeth, The Struggle for the Throne is a biography on Queen Elizabeth the 1st written by David Starkey. The book tells about the life and times of Queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth Tudor was born September 7, 1533 in Greenwich Palace. Her parents were Henry the 8th and Anne Boleyn. ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was executed on false accusations of incest and adultery. Anne was beheaded on May 19, 1536. Henry and AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage was declared null and void and Elizabeth, just like her half-sister, Mary, was declared illegimate and deprived of her rightful place in the line of succession. Henry the 8th had six wives and three children. Henry wanted a son and his 3rd wife, Jane Seymour, gave him Edward but died during childbirth. Elizabeth was crowned Queen in November 17, 1558 at the age of twenty-five. Elizabeth was the third in line for the throne and had to wait on her brother, Edward to pass away in the summer of 1553, then her sister, Mary passed away in 1558. Queen Elizabeth never married or had children even though she had many suitors. During her reign as Queen, Elizabeth re-established the Protestant Church in England. She labeled herself Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Queen Elizabeth was a dedicated Protestant. She prayed daily and enjoyed the traditional style of worship in contrast to the sermon-based service becoming more popular. Elizabeth was not a religious extremist. The time during the QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s reign is often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The Golden AgeÃ¢â¬ . She was greatly admired and considered one of the most loved monarchs. During her time England was and still is one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world. Elizabeth reigned as Queen of England until the day she died on March 24, 1603 in Richmond Palace. Elizabeth, The Struggle for the Throne is a very informative biography about Queen Elizabeth the 1st. It tells about her entire life from when she was a baby living in Greenwich P... Free Essays on Queen Elizabeth The 1st Free Essays on Queen Elizabeth The 1st Elizabeth, The Struggle for the Throne is a biography on Queen Elizabeth the 1st written by David Starkey. The book tells about the life and times of Queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth Tudor was born September 7, 1533 in Greenwich Palace. Her parents were Henry the 8th and Anne Boleyn. ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was executed on false accusations of incest and adultery. Anne was beheaded on May 19, 1536. Henry and AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage was declared null and void and Elizabeth, just like her half-sister, Mary, was declared illegimate and deprived of her rightful place in the line of succession. Henry the 8th had six wives and three children. Henry wanted a son and his 3rd wife, Jane Seymour, gave him Edward but died during childbirth. Elizabeth was crowned Queen in November 17, 1558 at the age of twenty-five. Elizabeth was the third in line for the throne and had to wait on her brother, Edward to pass away in the summer of 1553, then her sister, Mary passed away in 1558. Queen Elizabeth never married or had children even though she had many suitors. During her reign as Queen, Elizabeth re-established the Protestant Church in England. She labeled herself Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Queen Elizabeth was a dedicated Protestant. She prayed daily and enjoyed the traditional style of worship in contrast to the sermon-based service becoming more popular. Elizabeth was not a religious extremist. The time during the QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s reign is often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The Golden AgeÃ¢â¬ . She was greatly admired and considered one of the most loved monarchs. During her time England was and still is one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world. Elizabeth reigned as Queen of England until the day she died on March 24, 1603 in Richmond Palace. Elizabeth, The Struggle for the Throne is a very informative biography about Queen Elizabeth the 1st. It tells about her entire life from when she was a baby living in Greenwich P...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Network Operating Systems - Coursework Example New version i.e. USB 3.0 will take approximately 3.3 seconds to transfer 1 gigabyte of data (, Data Transfer Rates to Jump With USB 3.0 ). Moreover, transferring files on a network incorporates file transfer protocol, Microsoft windows sharing, P2P networks etc. In order to share a file, folder, optical drive or hard drive, configuration of FTP is required. This includes configuration of a network place. Steps that are involved in this process are: click Ã¢â¬Ëmy network placesÃ¢â¬â¢ ? Ã¢â¬Ëadd a network placeÃ¢â¬â¢? specify address by providing the path known as the Ã¢â¬ËFTP siteÃ¢â¬â¢ and click Ã¢â¬ËnextÃ¢â¬â¢?uncheck Ã¢â¬Ëlog on anonymouslyÃ¢â¬â¢? click Ã¢â¬ËOKÃ¢â¬â¢. After following these steps, FTP site will be created that will be available on the network for the users to transfer files. However, the transmission of files within the network will be conducted by FTP. FTP facilitates the users to share files in a simplest of methods along with configuring a n FTP site or server. FreeBSD also includes FTP server software named as Ã¢â¬ËftpdÃ¢â¬â¢, that is located in the base system. Ã¢â¬ËftdpÃ¢â¬â¢ enables the network administrator to configure FTP server in a simple way (, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) ).However, Linux uses Ã¢â¬ËscpÃ¢â¬â¢ to share files on a remote location.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Philadelphia Primate Head Study - Essay Example Some decades ago, the federal government had to suspend the funding of the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Head Injury Clinical Research Laboratory. The reigning president back then, Sheldon Hackney, further issued a directive to stop the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s use of animal experiments aimed at discovering the best treatment for victims of trauma-related brain damage. The directive served as a timely response to a preliminary report by the National Institute of Health (NIH) aimed at halting a particular baboon research project (Meyer 1). In my honest opinion, the use of primates in studies should be abolished because it is disrespectful to anatomy, unjust and goes against the ethics of beneficence and non-maleficence. In May 1984, Animal Liberation Front (ALF) activists intruded the deserted Philadelphia campus of The University of Pennsylvania and took several videos of animals suffering during various head tests (Orlans 71). The videos captured more than 60 hours of enforced baboon-suffering through bombarding of the primatesÃ¢â¬â¢ heads using pistons in order to induce brain injuries. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) made claims that the videotapes showed actions of repeated violations of federal policies that govern the humane use of animals in research laboratories (Orlans 71). In the experiments, scientists disregarded the use of surgical asepsis and employed a very insignificant amount of anesthesia to the primatesÃ¢â¬â¢ bodies. Beneficence refers to an action done for the benefit of others through prevention/removal of harm ("Beneficence vs. Nonmaleficence" par.1). The principle demands that all physicians should refrain from harming their patients. The researchers i n Philadelphia, therefore, through causing the baboons tremendous levels of pain, disregarded the need to observe the principle of beneficence. The painful act also illustrates a significant deal of injustice to the animal. I am of the opinion that, even if an animal has to die,
Sunday, November 17, 2019
What is the evidence of debate ideas to a critical period (CP) effect and What are the flaws - Essay Example Various studies have been largely conducted with the basis of debating on this hypothesis and the ideas that affect the critical period. Subsequently, there have been studies conducted too with a view to assessing the flaws that have surrounded this hypothesis, particularly in relation to the selective overview of the theoretical issues and empirical findings that relate to the question of the second language acquisition and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s age (White, 2003). In this study, the concentration point shall be laid on the flaws that have been experienced with in relation to the ideas of the critical period effect. To achieve this, a degree of familiarity has been assumed on the familiarity of readers in connection to specific linguistic structures that relate to this hypothesis. Subsequently, it is assumed that the audience is well informed of the methodology in relation to the critical period effect. In discussing the critical period debate, publications that have been made on the same shall form the basis of the analysis taking into consideration the availability of the concepts that have been geared towards the support for the hypothesis. For instance, according to Birdsong (2006), an understanding into the debate of critical period effect requires that brain based data and the behavior of individuals be discussed in relation to the cognitive neuro-functioning and neurocognitive aging of persons. His first argument is that there is a demonstrably different outcome in the acquisition of a second language among adults in comparison to the acquisition of the first language among children. A departure from this basic observation is what has triggered the attempts by various researchers to seek for an understanding of the age-related effects of acquiring a second language based on the hypothesis of the critical period. According to Qingxin (2012), there is no existence of a critical/sensitive learning period for the second language. The argument
Friday, November 15, 2019
An Introduction To Human Resource Development Management Essay HRD is an emerging concept to distinguish between strategic and business-oriented learning from traditional learning and development (Sambrook, 2004). HRD is generally focused on three areas in organization, viz. training and development, career development and organizational development (Fenwick, 2004, p.193). According to McCarthy et al. (2003, p. 58), the purpose of HRD is to foster the process of training in a company and to facilitate the organizational learning process. Despite with history of about fifteen year, HRD is remains as a vague and poorly defined concept (Garavan et al., 1999; Sambrook, 2004; Stewart, 2005), partly due to the difficulties in defining the scope for the concept and lack of a unified definition (Garavan et al., 1999). The concept of HRD is interrelated with a wide range of disciplines such as economics, sociology, psychology, strategic management, leadership and human resource management (Stewart, 2005, p.91). Definitions are therefore varies with different perspectives adopted by different authors (Garavan et al., 1999). Most HRD literatures are performance-oriented or learning-oriented as pointed out by Simmonds and Pederson (2003). For instance, Sambrook (2004, p.611) defines HRD as all those activities that seek to facilitate all forms of learning and development at all levels within organizations. On the other hand, Slotte et al. (2004, p.485) defines HRD as covering functions related primarily on training, career development, organizational development and research and development in addition to other organizational HR functions where these are intended to foster learning capacity at all levels of the organization, to integrate learning culture into its overall business strategy and to promote the organizations effort to achieve high quality performance. According to Hatcher; Kalra (cited in Hatcher 2003), HRD has been attacked for treating human as resources which to be manipulated or used to achieve organizational goal. The authors further argued that the HRD definition emphasis too much on resources while overlook potential (Hatcher, 2003, p.1). According to the Hatcher (2003), there are potential in each employee which exceeds the economic value. Therefore, treating human as resources places them in a subservient and compliant position to organizational goals and limits our ability to be in harmony with nature (Hatcher, 2003, p.1). On the other hand, Sambrook (2004) added to the critiques of HRD by arguing that most HRD literatures generally emphasis on performance outcome and neglect the organizational issues concerning the marginalized populations. According to Bierema (2002, p.245), the issues of diversity, equality, power, heterosexism, discrimination, sexism, racism, or other issues of oppression in organizations are ignored by current HRD literatures. Bierema and Cseh (2003) further argued that these undiscussable issues are ignored but yet, have significant impacts on both individual and organization. To address such issues, Rigg et al. (2007) had argued that it is necessary to think HRD from a critical stance. They argued that there is a need for critical turn in HRD (Rigg et al., 2007). 2.0 Critical Approach to Human Resource Development Before discussing on what is critical human resource development (CHRD), it is necessary to understand the term critical. Antonacopoulou (cited in Fenwick, 2004, p. 195) defines critical as providing voice for the repressed and marginalized, exposing assumptions and values, revealing the use of power and control, and challenging inequalities and sacrifices made in the name of efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability through a self-reflexive critique of rhetoric, traditional, authority, and objectivity. On the other hand, Burrell (cited in Sambrook, 2004, p. 614) suggested that critical theory is associated with challenging rational organizational practices and replacing them with more democratic and emancipatory practices. The two definitions implies that being critical mean to challenge unjust practices in the organization and to pursue a more democratic and justice practice. Hence, according to Kincheloe (cited in Fenwick, 2004, p.198), critical approach to HRD is dedicated to change organizations and their HRD practices towards a more just, equitable, life-giving, and sustainable workplace. However, Francis (2007) argued that critical approach to HRD is not opposed to traditional HRD. In fact, it seeks to help practitioners and academics to better understand and aware of the ambiguities in current HRD (Francis, 2007). Besides, it also seeks to demonstrate how inequalities and shift in power can affect the abilities to control the production, distribution and consumption of HRD practices and ultimately, the effects of these inequalities to the individual development and participation of employees (Francis, 2007, p.84). After understanding the meaning of critical in the context of HRD, then how to be critical in HRD? According to Antonacopoulou in his definition of critical, being critical can be achieved through self-critique on rhetoric, traditional, authority and objectivity. On the other hand, Burrell (2001) proposed that a critical approach should comprise of six components, viz. political, iconoclastic, epistemological, investigative, revelatory and emancipatory (Burrell, 2001 p. 14-17). Sambrook (2009) applied Burrells framework in the HRD context and outlined the attributes that distinguish CHRD from traditional one, which presented as follow: Political. Burrell (2001) argued that political perspective of critical approach is to understand the use of power in an organization and how political forces in organization can shape or influence human life. Hence, CHRD seek to identify the key stakeholders and influencers of HRD and examine their influence on the HRD activities (Sambrook, 2004; 2009). Unlike traditional HRD where employees and trainees are suppressed and excluded from giving their opinion, CHRD aware of the need for the shift of power to allow traditional oppressed groups to have more freedom and voicing opportunities (Sambrook, 2004; 2009). Iconoclastic. According to Burrell (2001, p.15), being critical involve breaking down the solidity of dominant imagery and icon. Therefore, CHRD attempts to challenge current perception of HRD and seeks to identify the purpose underlying each HRD activities (Sambrook, 2009). HRD suppose to serve the purpose of employees development or merely focus on performance-outcome? Asking such question will then lead to the exposure of weaknesses in current HRD activities which is performance-oriented (as argued by most critical HRD literatures) while the development of individual in organization is neglected (Sambrook, 2009). Epistemological. Sambrook (2004, 2009) argued that epistemological perspective is concerned with understanding of the foundations of HRD and the methodologies used in the construction of the knowledge about HRD. CHRD challenges currently dominant positivism and quantitative approaches in the construction of the knowledge about HRD and to adopt a more qualitative methods which will enable more in-depth study on the values, morality and ethics in HRD (Sambrook, 2009, p.66). Investigative. Burrell (2001) argued investigative perspective of critical approach try to challenge something that others have taken for granted. Being investigative in the context of HRD concerns with surfacing the social equality issues in organization which have been neglected in current research and practice of HRD (Sambrook, 2004). This maybe include an investigation of why certain groups of people having the priorities in receiving training than the others. Besides, investigative perspective can also include the investigation of the difference between what is HRD (in the eye of practitioners) and what actually been done by them (Sambrook, 2004). Revelatory. Burrell (2001, p.16) argued that, by attacking illusion, there can be a concomitant demonstration of what is illusion and what is truth. Given the difficulties and ambiguities in defining the term HRD, revelatory perspective of CHRD attempts to challenge current understanding of HRD in order to find the truth of HRD and to unified the different discourses which currently regarded as HRD (Sambrook, 2004; 2009). However, Burrell (2001) argued that it is difficult to practice revelatory perspective as it is problematic to distinguish between illusion and truth. Emancipatory. According to Sambrook (2009, p. 67), there are arguments on whether HRD should serve the purpose of freeing employees from capitalist exploitation and employment degradation. However, Burrell (2001) argued that it is difficult to achieve emancipatory as organization system always involve control and the effect of power is unavoidable. From the above attributes, it is noted that these strands are interrelated (Sambrook, 2004). Sambrook (2009) argued that individual awareness of the attributes of CHRD is important for CHRD to be put into practice. In addition, individual antecedents such as understanding and acceptance of ones role, recognition of the boundaries of ones profession, political awareness, excellent communication skills, respect and trust are also essential for the success of CHRD (Sambrook, 2009, p.66). In addition to personal antecedent, organization antecedents that involved include organizational culture of participation, democracy, learning and personal development (Sambrook, 2009, p.66) 3.0 Contributions of Critical Human Resource Development Sambrook (2009) mentioned in her article Critical HRD: a concept analysis that the practice of CHRD will result in a more democratic work production, improved (working/learning) relationship, more effective and relevant learning, enhanced transfer of learning, improved creativity and productivity, and an acceptance of alternative approaches to knowing (Sambrook, 2009, p. 68). 3.1 Political Perspective Contributions to Individual As mentioned above, political perspective of CHRD aware of the needs for the shift of power in an organization to allow traditionally oppressed groups to voice out their opinion. In line with that, Lowe (cited in Fenwick, 2004) argued that CHRD plays the mediating role to allow employees unions and management to collaborate in designing jobs, training and working condition. He further argued that CHRD can help to counter management push for new HRM practices that undercut the union, could champion a people-centered agenda and help leverage management collaboration (Lowe cited in Fenwick, 2004). Besides, the shift of power also related to the concept of empowerment. Empowerment is the shift of decision making power to employees (Erstard, 1997). According to Zeithamal; Berry and Parasuraman (cited in Ravichandran, n.d., p.2), employee empowerment is proven to have positive impact on job satisfaction and reduces role stress. It is also suggested that empowered employees experience lesser job ambiguity and have quicker response to problem as they can avoid wasting time referring the problem to their superior (Singh cited in Ravichandran, n.d., p.2). In addition, empowered employees are also demonstrating greater commitment and loyalty to the organization (Greasley et al., 2008). Contribution to Organization Employee empowerment as mentioned above also has its positive impacts on the organization effectiveness. According to Ladden (n.d.), empowerment can improve the productivity, decision making process and quality of service. The improvement of decision making process is due to the fact that decisions are made by employees who have the most appropriate information, expertise needed (Ladden, n.d.). Besides, empowered employees will also likely to have greater commitment to the decision made, thus, enable product or customer problem to be dealt more quickly which in turn will have positive impact on productivity and customer service quality(Ladden, n.d.). 3.2 Iconoclastic and Emancipatory Perspective Contributions to Individual From the iconoclastic perspective, the breakdown of the dominant performance-oriented purpose of HRD activities and the recognition of true purpose of HRD will lead to individual development in an organization. Fenwick (2004) who examines the practices of CHRD in workplace suggested that one of the CHRD practices in organization takes in the form of emancipatory action learning where employees learns as a team and collaborate to solve a problem through direct experimentation, critical thinking and communication. According to Lanahan and Maldonado (cited in Spence, 1998), action learning can help participants to solve problems more effectively compared with simple training and at the same time, develop leadership in them. Marquardt (2000) in his article action learning and leadership added to the point of leadership development by arguing that action learning can help improve individual effectiveness by developing good leadership attributes such as system thinking; risk taking and innovative; openness and share decision making; and become teachers, coach and mentor to others. Participants can develop system thinking skill through the process of asking new questions to gain better insight of a problem before coming out with its solution (Marquardt, 2000). This will in turn increase their ability to handle complex, seemingly unconnected aspects of organizational challenge (Marquardt, 2000). Besides, action learning can also increase the ability of participants to think in new ways rather than following the traditional route which will then improve their innovativeness and willingness to take risk (Marquardt, 2000). Furthermore, participants in action learning program can also learn to accept others opinion, learn from others perspective and to provide valuable feedback which will then help to create a culture of openness among participants and leaders are learning how to share their decision making power with others (Marquardt, 2000). Contributions to Organization York et al. (cited in Spence, 1998) suggested that action learning can also help to facilitate the transfer of learning as participants are able to take immediate action, thus making changes to the practices in an organization. On the other hand, Alvesson and Willmott (cited in Fenwick, 2004, p. 203) argued that emancipatory action learning can help employees to develop critical assessment about unfair practices in organization and then helps to improve the organization through actions to address such issues. According to Fenwick (2004), another practice of CHRD is in the form of emancipatory project- a small projects aims at addressing a specific oppressive issue. Meyerson and Kolb (cited in Fenwick, 2004, p. 204) has conducted such project and found that the project can yield a fruitful result to initiate changes in organization. On the other hand, Tosey and Nugent (cited in Fenwick, 2004, p. 204) demonstrated another example showing critical inquiry-focused form of action learning help transform management team of a failing small manufacturing company to think creatively about strategy and change the way they related to one another to be more supportive, caring and challenging. Challenges in Practice Despite the fruitful benefits of emancipatory action learning as mentioned above, Fenwick (2004) argued that the practice of the approach was proven to be difficult. Difficulties arise as emancipatory action learning should involve employees at the lower level of hierarchy and punitive actions from managers when the project failed to achieve expected result may caused further oppressed or violence of employees in the organization (Fenwick, 2004). Therefore, to avoid that to be happened, Fournier and Grey (cited in Fenwick, 2004, p.203) argued that the intention of emancipatory action learning should not be emphasized on performance outcome. Contrary, emancipatory action learning should emphasize on dimensions such as equality, fairness, job condition and politics of knowledge legitimation that are embedded in problems of organizational bottleneck and communication blockages (Fenwick, 2004, p. 203). However, the non-performance intention is apparently contradict with the traditional business objective that pursuing business performance, efficiency and productivity. Fenwick (2004) argued that performance is arguably the purpose of organizational existence and the original purpose of HRD is to enhance performance. The practice of CHRD that emphasize on promoting equality, fairness and emancipatory of employees condemned the hierarchical management of human learning and the productivity-driven purposes of business (Fenwick, 2004). This becomes a great challenge for practitioners in their efforts to adopt critical approach in HRD. 3.3 Epistemological Perspective Contributions to Individual From the epistemological perspective, the challenge of the methodologies used in the construction of the knowledge about HRD is related to the concept of critical reflection (Sambrook, 2009). According to Brookfield (1988), there are four major activities in critical reflection, viz. assumption analysis, contextual awareness, imaginative speculation and reflective skepticism. Van Woerkom (2004) who studies about the effects of critical reflection on HRD argued that critical reflection in HRD will helps to facilitate more effective learning of individual in an organization. Employees who engage in critical thinking are likely to display critical reflective behavior of reflecting, career awareness, experimenting, learning from mistakes, critical opinion sharing, invites others for feedback, and challenging groupthink (Van Woerkom, 2004, p. 187). The author argues that the adoption of critical reflective behavior has proven to have positive impacts on both the individual as well as organization. In the individual level, the adoption of critically reflective behavior will increase employees self-efficacy and participation in the workplace (Van Woerkom, 2004). The improvement in self-efficacy is due to the fact that employees need to have a certain degree of competency and risk-taking behavior to display critical reflective behavior in the workplace (Van Woerkom, 2004). They have to withstand social pressure and be critical instead of following the traditional ways or practices (Van Woerkom, 2004). Van Woerkom (2004, p. 187) argued that critical reflective behavior not only allow employees to develop their own competences and to connect their working life to personal development, but it also enabled them to optimize or to critically analyze and try to change work practice. In addition, Van Woerkom (2004) further argued that employees who adopt critical reflective behavior are likely to have a steeper learning curve and this will have positive effect on their self-efficacy. On the other hand, the increase in participation is due to the fact that the adoption of critical reflective behavior requires employees to get involved in the organization and to understand the work practice at different level of organization as well as the scope to solve problem and learn from mistakes (Van Woerkom, 2004). According to Van Woerkom (2004), employees that display critical reflective work behavior are more often being invited to participate in organization. Contributions to Organization In the organizational level, Van Woerkom (2004) had conducted investigation in two organizations (a textile painting factory and a forensic psychiatric clinic) and found that critically reflective behavior is effective to transform organization from Taylorism to a modern organization, with participating and self-managing workers (p. 187). Van Woerkom argued that to achieve this, employees have to reflect on their own current and future position in the organization and to reflect on their own behavior, instead of blaming others for mistakes (Woerkom, 2004, p. 187). Besides, the practices of challenging groupthink, ask for feedback, critical opinion sharing will likely to stimulate double loop learning in organization (Van Woerkom and Croon, 2008). According to Argyris (2002), Double-loop learning occurs when errors are corrected by changing the governing values and then the action. By practicing critical opinion sharing, ask for feedback and challenging groupthink, employees are able to share what they have learned with others, thereby facilitate the effectiveness of learning and working of the organization (Van Woerkom and Croon, 2008). Furthermore, Natale and Nicci (2006) in their research of critical thinking in organization pointed out that low level of conflict can help to stimulate the quality of decision making of a team. Therefore, conflict that resulted from critical thinking of individual in organization is useful to stimulate the performance of the organization (Natele and Nicci, 2006). However, the research also revealed that when conflict intensified, its positive effects will diminishes and team performance will deteriorates (Natele and Nicci, 2006). Challenges in Practice Despite the benefits of practicing critical reflection in the workplace to both employees and organization, Sambrook (2009) argued that individual and organizational barriers may arise in the effort of organization to implement CHRD which caused by dogma, misunderstanding, and perceived threat of loss of power. Particularly, the implementation of CHRD requires the shift of power which will may causes authority or management to resist the adoption of CHRD because the fear of losing their power (Sambrook, 2009). Besides, Reynolds (cited in Rigg and Trehan, 2008, p.378) argued that dissonance resulted from challenging status quo and questioning their position may cause individual to resist engaging in critical thinking. 4.0 Conclusion Current HRD is emphasis on the learning and performance while ignore the issues of diversity, equality, power, heterosexism, discrimination, sexism, racism, or other issues of oppression in organizations (Bierema, 2002, p. 245). Therefore, CHRD is emerged to address these issues. Sambrook (2009) using Burrells (2001) framework of six strands to a critical approach has constructed the attributes of CHRD, which are: political, iconoclastic, epistemological, investigative, revelatory and emancipatory. Generally, critical perspective of HRD is about challenging contemporary practices, exposing assumptions, revealing illusion, and questioning tradition (Sambrook, 2004, p. 614) in the objective to create a more just, equitable, discrimination-free working environment and to contribute toward human capital development. CHRD facilitates more effective learning of individual which will then increase the competencies and self-efficacy of individual (Van Woerkom, 2004). It is also argued that critical thinker in an organization are more often being invited to participate in the organization (Van Woerkom, 2004). Furthermore, the practice of CHRD can help individual to develop leadership as argued by Marquardt (2000). On the other hand, empowerment of employees helps to increase the productivity and responsiveness to problem while reducing the job ambiguity and work stress of employees (Ravichandran, n.d.). In organizational level, CHRD can facilitate double-loop learning which will help to change the practice of the organization (Van Woerkom and Croon, 2008). Besides, CHRD can also help to create a company with independent and participating workforce as suggested by Van Woerkom (2004). In addition, the effect of employee empowerment can also help to increase the productivity, service quality and decision making process as argued by Ladden (n.d.). However, the practice of CHRD will meet certain challenges in term of contradiction between the objective of CHRD and performance purpose of business objective (Fenwick, 2004) and the reluctance of individual to engage in the practice of CHRD (Sambrook, 2009). Therefore, Sambrook (2009) argued that organizational and individual antecedents as mentioned above are crucial for CHRD to be put into practice. (3532 words)
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Should welfare recipients be drug tested? Welfare is supposed to meet the basic needs and drugs are far from the basic human needs. If drug using recipients get all the benefits they are more likely to take their check and spend it on their next fix, rather than buy groceries. Drug testing welfare recipients would decrease the amount of people abusing the system, it would require recipients to stay free of using drugs, and would reveal recipients who are wasting the tax payers money.It is clear that drug testing welfare recipients would benefit the system, other recipients, and tax payers. Firstly, drug testing would decrease the amount of people abusing the system. People who are drug users and refuse to stop or get help will not apply for welfare. Also, drug testing would send a message to society that abusing the system will no longer be tolerated and it would free up extra funds for families who actually need the help.Thus, drug testing welfare recipients would stop people who ar e abusing of the system. Secondly, drug testing will require recipients to stay free of using drugs. If people really need the assistance money then they will chose to either stay clean or get help to get clean. Recipients who fail the test or simply refuse to take the test will not receive an assistance check and without the welfare money people will not be able to afford drugs. Therefore, drug testing welfare recipients would help clean up illegal drug useLastly, drug testing would reveal recipients who are wasting the tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s money. If the working class has to be drug tested to make their money, those receiving assistance should be drug tested to receive their check. Tax payers should not have to pay for some random personÃ¢â¬â¢s drug habit and if people chose to be foolish and want to do drugs they should get a job to support their bad habit. As a result, drug testing welfare recipients would reveal the people who are wasting the tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s money.In conclusi on, qualifying and receiving welfare is a privilege and if the government continues to allow drug users collect welfare payment, this will show that they condone their behavior. Drug testing welfare recipients would decrease abuse to the system, require people to stay clean and reveal people who are wasting the tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s money. The government should pass the law to drug test welfare recipients. Hard working, taxpaying citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s money is going towards helping people get back on their feet using the welfare system, and far too often people are abusing the system to pay for and support their drug habits.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In high school, students feel presured to fit in with a certain group of people share the same intrests as them, this is better known as cliques. This makes many students feel left out and lonely while at school. Cliques are always around eachother wiether its in between classes, at lunch, or after school. There are many different reasons that cliques in high school are formed. The fear of surviving alone in high school is a main concen for many students that find it hard to make friends, this is one example of why cliques are formed. Cliques are developed by studentÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to establish an identity and to be accepted. Students always seeks their identity and one way to do that is to choose a group of students who have the same identity as them. Teenagers love to explore and take risks. In forming cliques, especially with those groups who are popular, they develop a sense of power. Cliques are also formed because of peer preasure. This is because teenageres feel a sense of security when they are around people they look up to. There are many different types of cliques students form in high school. Typicly in highschool the athletes tend to hang out together. This clique is known at the jocks. The intrests of the students that make up this group include sports, dating, and their apperence. The guys in this clique are appealing to most girls in the school. Jocks feel a sense of superiority and tend to bully or pick on the other students they are not a part of this clique. The students in this group are made out to be the most popular kids in school and many others become envious of them. Another clique formed by highschool students are the nerds or the geeks. This students that make up this group are intrested in learning, computers, and video games. These students tend to make good grades and are very smart.Ã Most nerds tend to be in the school band. This group is most of the time known as the least popular in the school. Therefore they get picked on more than any of the other cliques, mainly by the jocks. The students who dress in dark colors and are very intriverted are refered to as the emo group or misfits. The intrests of the people who make up this group are loud music, skateboarding, and art. The apperence of this group differs from the others in that they have a very unique style. Dyed black hair, tight t-shirts and skinny jeans are only some ways this group would express themselves. There are many disadvantages of being involved in a clique throughout high school. For example, being in a clique can lead students to make stupid mistakes and decions. People involved in cliques are more likely to get pregnant or do drugs while in high school. Being involved in a clique could also spark jealously in less popular people. Along with the disadvanges comes many more advantages of being involved in a clique. Being involoved in a clique allows students to learn to be more comfortable around others. It also helps increase studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ self confidence. Students who are involved in a clique have a greater chance of not getting picked on throughout high school. Having a large group of friends and knowing that someone always has your back is another advantage of being in a clique. This, as many students should know, helps getting though high school much easier. In conclusion, being in a clique makes high school much easier to get through but can also cause a lot of unnesicary drama. Since fitting in is so important to in high school, cliques are an easy way for students to feel a sense of belonging. Cliques are very influencual in high school because they affect every student in some way or another.
Friday, November 8, 2019
In the Going and your last drive Hardy Essay Example In the Going and your last drive Hardy Paper In the Going and your last drive Hardy Paper The sudden loss of a loved one can reveal that a seemingly intimate, idyllic relationship can in fact be complex, distant and lifeless. Thomas Hardy attempts to portray this idea in his works The Going and Your Last Drive. In The Going Hardy illustrates that a feeling of wistful, nostalgic regret results from concentrating on the negative aspects of lost relationships. In Your Last Drive however he indicates that although there may be no afterlife, the dead live on in our memories and through imaginative recreation. Hardy manages to depict these concepts through his intricate control of language. Sudden, unexpected loss can leave one grief stricken, isolated and melancholic. A sense of frustration and blame is created by Hardy in the first stanza of The Going. Hardy questions his lost loved one asking why did you give no hint that she was about to pass away. Angry that she didnt alert him to her imminent death, Hardy harshly blames her using the adverb why. His loved one is said to have been indifferent quite. She ignored his feelings, possibly unconcerned about, and uncaring towards him, as depicted by the adjective indifferent. This feeling Hardy might have returned. Hardy uses euphemisms such as where I could not follow as he doesnt wish to accept his loved ones passing. He attempts to escape reality and isolate himself from the real world; obviously hurt deeply by her death. In the second stanza Hardy begins to grieve and lament. Hardy says how she never bid goodbye. He is sorry that she didnt say farewell to him. This portrays Hardy differently; not angry and blaming but rather sorrowful and regretful. Hardy is said to have been unknowing of her passing and how it altered all. The alliteration of altered all draws attention to huge impact of the death on Hardy. A feeling of torment is created in the third stanza as Hardy states that she made him think that for a breath it is you I see. Hardy momentarily believes he sees his wife; his eyes are seeing what he wants, to be able to view his wife again. The alliteration of darkening dankness portrays Hardys state of mind: bleak, sombre and gloomy. However in the end Hardy only sees yawning blankness which sickens him, illustrating his intense yearn for another moment with her. The comfort and support of a loving relationship can be easily lost due to negligence. A feeling of wistful, nostalgic regret results from concentrating on the negative aspects of lost relationships. Returning back to the early years of their relationship, Hardy attempts to remember the positives of their marriage in the fourth stanza. He describes how his wife (the swan-necked one) would muse and eye him. The verb muse shows that Hardy was captivated by her youth and beauty. In the fifth stanza, in contrast to the previous, Hardy turns to the negatives in their marriage, wondering why they didnt revive the original joys. Hardy asks whydid we not speak, illustrating their neglect. Hardy wonders why they didnt remember those days long dead. The adjective dead suggests that the initial happiness of the start of the relationship didnt continue. However, it could also portray how the marriage was almost lifeless and empty due to their disregard and mistreatment. Hardy regrets that he and his wife didnt seek to strive that times renewal. This shows that they didnt attempt to revive their initial feelings or rekindle their romance. Emotionally struggling in the last stanza, Hardy cant get over his grief. He states how alls past amend, illustrating his inability to repair his relationship with his wife due to her passing. I seem but a dead man Hardy says: ready to sink down soon. This shows that Hardy is waiting for the end, for death to take him and rid him of his pain and bereavement. The punctuation (ellipsis and hyphen) and fragmented syntax in the last stanza breaks down the poems rhythm. It also helps to portray Hardys factored thoughts and inability to order his emotions. In the last line of the poem Hardy states that he didnt expect that his wifes passing would undo me so. Hardy didnt think that her death would distress him as immensely as they had grown apart. The tragedy of loss can leave one pondering over their past actions; lifeless, depressed and confused. We sometimes use our imaginations as a means of escaping the grief and suffering of tragic loss. In Your Last Drive Hardy creates a bleak, reminiscent mood throughout the poem. Hardy establishes a setting by the moorway portraying a sense of desolation and isolation. The adjective undiscerned is used to describe the deceased, showing that she wasnt to know that she would be in a week the face of the dead. This illustrates that one will never pinpoint the exact date they will pass away. Hardy contrasts the face of the dead with that haloed view, between death and heaven, foreshadowing her imminent death. Like in The Going Hardy uses euphemisms instead of describing her graveyard. The resting-place is said to have been alien from you [the deceased]. The adjective alien emphasises the deceaseds ignorance of her impending death. In the third stanza Hardy describes how he was unable to read the writing upon your face. Hardy wishes to illustrate that you cant foresee a persons passing, oblivious until they have gone. Hardy in the fourth stanza portrays the lack of communication between the living and the dead. Hardy uses the speech of the deceased to bring back the lost persons voice, creating intimacy and complexity. The loved one says how I shall not know emphasising the ignorance of the dead. In the last stanza Hardy agrees with the dear ghost stating that never youll know. This inversion emphasises that never will the dead be alert to the livings problems. The last line of the poem is full of juxtaposition with Hardy saying you are past love, praise, indifference, blame. This emphasises the tension and conflict in complex relationships. Hardy is unsure of how to remember his wife now that she has passed away; whether to remember the positives or negatives of their marriage. At the sudden conclusion of an intimate, complex relationship, confusion and reminiscence reign. Hardy attempts to show the complexity and tension in relationships that once seemed intimate and idyllic. In The Going and Your Last Drive Hardy tries to portray the effects loss has on the one left behind. He shows that one is left frustrated, grieving and lifeless after the loss of those closest to them.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Nicolas agusut otto essays Although he had little technical training Nicolaus Otto overcame these early challenges and changed the world with his more reliable, powerful and lighter engine that changed the world. Born on the 14th of June 1832 in Holzhausen Germany. Ottos hometown was right on the Rhine River where water power ruled. His father, the village postman, died when he was young but his mother raised him well in a good area with good schools and plans to train young Nicolaus to become a lawyer.(woodford 203). Early on his mother encouraged him to be a lawyer but after the failed German revolution of 1848 his mother decided he would be better off as a merchant.(204). Ottos worked in a textile mill owned by his brother for his first job. Then Otto trained and became a travelling salesman in Cologne in 1853. He was selling kitchenware such as pots, pans, knifes and silverware. He soon took an interest in engine technology first that was attempted by French man Eugene Lenior to power horse-drawn carriages and small factories. However Leniors engine would severely overheat and consumed far too much fuel (Lyle). In 1862 he conducted his first tests with a four-stroke engine, but these did not bring the desired results due to the explosive nature of the combustion and a weak ignition system. However, after Otto met Eugen Langen, a technician and proprietor of sugar factory, he gave up his profession as travelling salesman, and in 1864 they established N.A. Otto ln(Basher 114). At the 1867 World Exhibition in Paris one of the newly designed and developed by Otto and Langen was a very powerful atmospheric gas or 2 stroke engine developed by the small company was awarded the Gold Medal for the most economical power for small business. The world fair was almost a disaster, the French ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Zoning - Essay Example New York City adopted the first zoning regulations to apply city-wide in 1916 as a reaction to construction of The Equitable Building (which still stands at 120 Broadway). The building towered over the neighboring residences and cast long shadows that diminished the quality of life for the people in the affected area. These laws written by a commission headed by Edward Basset and signed by Mayor John Purroy Mitchel became the blueprint for the rest of the country (partly because Edward Basset headed the group of planning laws that wrote The Standard State Zoning Enabling Act, which was accepted almost without change by most states) and by the late 1920s most of the nation would have developed a set of zoning regulations that met the needs of the locality. New York went on to develop ever more complex set of zoning regulations, including floor area ratio regulations, air rights and others according to the density-specific needs of the neighborhoods (http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/). Among large cities in the United States, Houston, Texas is unique in having no zoning ordinance. Houston voters have rejected efforts to implement zoning in 1948, 1962 and 1993. Thus Houston continues to be the largest city in the U.S. with no zoning. Specific zoning laws have been overturned in some other U.S. cases where the laws were not applied evenly (violating equal protection) or were considered to violate free speech.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Human Development - Essay Example PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s research indicated that behaviors could be learned via conditioned associations. The learning process was argued to have grounds on which environmental stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus could be associated (Watson 6). Therefore, this means that the focus of behaviorism is purely on the idea that human behavior is acquired as a result of interaction with the environment (Berger 2005). In regard to contribution of behaviorism to my development, it is apparent that behaviorism played a key part in dictating my current personality. Having been brought up in rural areas, most of the behaviors of the rural people were vested on me because I always interacted with them. The rural school setting is different from urban school setting. We used to travel for long distances to school and believed that schooling is a difficult task that one has to strive to achieve. Nevertheless, this was instrumental to me because I have always worked hard to achieve my desires. This is contrary to urban people who are brought up in urban settings. They have little struggles because the life in the urban is a bit comfortable than the life in the rural settings. This is equally the same case to children brought up in wealthy families and those that are brought up in rural settings. The personality of these two groups of people is wide owing to the lifestyle that they are exposed to. It is argued that people brought up in areas where crime is prevalent tend to adapt to criminal behaviors. Most people who engage in crime are either due to the influence of drugs or as a result of poverty. Since such people have little they can do to change their lives, they resort to crime and drugs as a way of either reducing stress or use crime as a way of earning a living. Hence, it is true to stipulate that the environment that such people find themselves in influences their character so that they can fit in it. Theory of cognitive development was pioneered by Jean Piaget who